The Swedish chemist, was the development, patenting (1867) and production of dynamite, one of the richest entrepreneurs of his time. Knowing about the abuse of his inventions, adopted by the childless Alfred Nobel, the bulk of his fortune posthumously should be included in the Nobel Foundation (1900) to donate their interest income from a humanitarian prize. With awards in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and the “brotherhood of peoples”, became the Nobel Prize in 1901, the fifth anniversary of Nobel’s, was first awarded, the most vital award of the modern …
Alfred Bernard Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, the son of a wealthy entrepreneur.
From 1843 to 1850 he lived with his father in Russia, St. Petersburg operated a factory machine. Here, the young private lessons at the Nobel in chemistry and completed his training as a mechanical engineer. 1850 was Alfred Nobel in his first study trip that also took him to Paris. Here he completed his chemistry education. With his return he worked in his father’s machine factory in St. Petersburg in 1859 and dealt with the development of explosives. This Nobel tried many new and safe ways of dealing with nitroglycerin found. In 1863 he returned to Stockholm. This year his work was the “initial spark for nitroglycerine explosives” were introduced.
In 1864 it came into the factory to a tragic accident. An uncontrolled explosion of the explosive ruined the factory building and his youngest brother and four other people lost their lives. With the rebuilding in 1865 was the first nitro-glycerine factory in the world. In the same year started the construction of nitroglycerine plant Krümmel in Geesthacht on the Elbe, which is why Nobel matured in Hamburg. In 1866 he founded the company in the United States United States Blasting Oil Company, and in 1867 he completed his academic work with the production of the later “dynamite”. The stuff that was in the same year Alfred Nobel patents pending, dominated the world in no time as explosives market leading manufactured goods.
In 1873 Alfred Nobel went to Paris. Here he started to try for a bomb, which was to unite with the safety of dynamite, blasting a stronger effect. In 1875 he succeeded the invention of “blasting gelatin”, a colloidal solution of nitrocellulose in nitroglycerin. Then turned to Alfred Nobel, in addition to his numerous organizational tasks, the problem of smokeless powder which he dissolved in 1887 with the invention of the Ballisits (a mixture of nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose with camphor). In 1891 he matured in the Italian San Remo. He continued to struggle with numerous experiments and explosives testing. He also worked on the development of armor plating, electrolytic production of alkali metal, synthetic gemstones and photography.
Due to the worldwide success of marketing dynamite earned the sensualist, bon vivant, Alfred Nobel a fortune that allowed him to an exclusive lifestyle with all the material advantages. He was, but, a total of 355 patents awarded. In his will of 1895 he laid the foundation stone for the award meistbeachtetste the modern world. According issued Nobel, that the major part of his fortune to the “Nobel Fund” will be provided. This financed the “Nobel Prize”, the annual Excellence in the field of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and the “fraternity between nations” distinguished.
Alfred Nobel died on 10 December 1896 in San Remo. He was buried at his own request to the North Cemetery in Stockholm.
At Nobel’s fifth anniversary on 10 December 1901 was first awarded the “Nobel Prize”. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards in view of the fact that the awards for physics and chemistry, the Karolinska Institute awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and the Swedish Academy’s prize for literature. While it is these institutions for scientific associations, for the award of the Nobel Peace Prize by the Norwegian Parliament a certain Commission, the Norwegian Nobel Committee, in charge.